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Ischemic stroke is a blockage of brain blood vessels; hemorrhagic stroke is bleeding into or around the brain. Immediate medical care is critical for a person who is having a stroke. After a stoke, some disability is common. Rehabilitation helps restore functions lost from brain damage due to stroke.


Epilepsy is a condition of having repeated seizures with no obvious cause. Seizure is a short period of uncontrolled body behavior that may last seconds to several minutes. For a large percentage of people with epilepsy, no cause of seizures is ever found. The most common treatment to prevent seizures is the use of daily medications.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord. In MS, the outside layer of nerves is damaged which interferes with nerve signals. Symptoms of MS include, vision loss or double vision, numbness, weakness, fatigue, and unsteady walking. The cause of MS is unknown but it is thought to be autoimmune.


Alzheimer disease attacks brain tissue and manifests itself with a steadily increasing memory loss that may be combined with vision, language, and emotional control problems. People with Alzheimer’s disease will require constant care at some point. Symptoms include trouble learning new information, increasing confusion and disorientation, trouble with conversations, personality changes, misplacing objects, becoming lost in familiar settings, and judgment problems.

Headaches/Migraine headaches

Migraine is a recurring throbbing headache, usually occurring on one side of the head. The exact cause of a migraine is unknown. It appears to be an inherited biochemical disorder of the brain. Symptoms include, severe prolonged headache, throbbing pain-increased pain after movement, sensitivity to bright light, sound or odors and nausea. Treatments include medications and lifestyle changes.


Dystonia can be described as involuntary tremors of a part of the body, e.g., leg and neck, and it can affect people who spent years in activities that involve repetitive movements. Treatments include, medications, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, and surgery.


Parkinsonism disease is a slowly progressive disease caused when a small group of brain cells die that control body movement. No one knows why these dopamine-producing cells die. Several theories are explored including exposure to toxic substances, chemical reactions within the body, and certain genetic factors. Symptoms include tremor in arms and legs, stiff and rigid muscles, slowness of walking with impaired balance. Many kinds of treatment help people maintain mobility and function.

Pain Syndromes/Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pain and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, general fatigue, and sleep disturbances. The most common sites of pain include the neck, back, shoulders, pelvic girdle, and hands. Sometimes it is not easy to diagnose fibromyalgia. There is no one specific diagnostic test to make a diagnosis. However, there are a variety of procedures that can help physicians to determine whether or not a patient has fibromyalgia.


Numbness and tingling are abnormal sensations that can occur anywhere in the body, but are often felt in fingers, hands, feet, arms or legs. Common causes include injury to the nerve (most common carpal tunnel syndrome), pressure on the spinal nerves (such as from a herniated disk), multiple sclerosis, migraine, seizures, stroke, and a number of medical conditions such as underactive thyroid or vitamin B12 deficiency.
Peripheral numbness distally (hands or feet) may indicate diffuse nerve damage such as seen in peripheral neuropathy. The most common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 deficiency, underactive thyroid, and autoimmune disorders (lupus, Sjögren’s syndrome).